The Sapling network upgrade requires a new type of shielded address to support the new usability and security improvements it brings to Zcash. Sapling shielded addresses start with “zs” whereas the legacy, Sprout shielded addresses start with “zc”.
The Sprout-to-Sapling migration is an upgrade strategy for funds left in Sprout addresses.
Due to the privacy properties of shielded addresses (both Sprout and Sapling), direct auditing of the total monetary supply is impossible, Turnstiles are a built in feature to monitor value entering and exiting their associated value pools. Users may wish to track the status of value pool totals.
There are two levels to the migration: user and consensus. The user level refers to the standard zcashd payment RPCs such as z_sendmany and z_mergettoaddress which prohibit any transaction from being sent directly from a Sprout address to a Sapling address (and vice versa). For sending between Sprout and Sapling addresses, users of these RPCs must use a transparent address as an intermediary which will obviously expose the balance being migrated. As described in Addresses and Value Pools in Zcash, all balance transfers from shielded addresses to transparent addresses reveal the value and become associated with those transparent addresses. Transfers from those transparent addresses back into shielded addresses reshield the value. This process is shown in the diagram below.
The consensus level mechanism allows a direct Sprout to Sapling transaction to take place but requires the balance be passed through the transparent value pool (see: Value Pools) before landing in a Sapling address, thus exposing the value without a transparent address. Because this may not be obvious to users (and therefore a privacy risk), a UX decision was made to limit availability in the standard RPC. A migration tool is available to make use of this consensus level mechanism. See Migration Tool below.
As of version 2.0.5-2 of zcashd, a Sprout-to-Sapling migration tool is available to help users who have funds stored in older Sprout addresses migrate them to a Sapling addresss. It is highly recommended that all users with funds in Sprout addresses make use of this tool instead of manual migration.
Since the exposure of the migrated amount potentially compromises the privacy of users, the tool works by hiding individual migration transactions among those of all users that are doing the migration at around the same time.
The tool will migrate funds from any Sprout addresses in the wallet into a single destination Sapling address. The migration works by creating up to 5 transactions whenever the blockchain reaches a 500 block height interval. The transaction amounts are picked according to a random distribution. The migration will end once the wallet’s Sprout balance is below .01 ZEC.
The full design of the tool is specified in ZIP 308.
Using the Migration Tool¶
Use of the migration tool is implemented in two zcashd RPCs:
Before running the tool, you may want to specify a specific destination address. The default is the Sapling account 0 address (aka the first address derived from the wallet’s master seed). To change this, set another Sapling address by adding the
-migrationdestaddress=<SAPLINGADDR> parameter in zcash.conf.
To activate the migration tool, simply run:
$ zcash-cli z_setmigration true
Or to deactivate:
$ zcash-cli z_setmigration false
Nodes will need to stay running until all funds have been transferred. If the node is shut down before completion, you will need to reactivate the tool when the node has been restarted.
You can also enable migration in zcash.conf by adding the
-migration parameter. This will start the migration automatically on restart. If the tool is deactivated with the RPC, a restart of zcashd will reenable it.
To check the status of migration, run:
$ zcash-cli z_getmigrationstatus
Which will output the following information:
"enabled": true|false, (boolean) Whether or not migration is enabled
"destination_address": "zaddr", (string) The Sapling address that will receive Sprout funds
"unmigrated_amount": nnn.n, (numeric) The total amount of unmigrated ZEC
"unfinalized_migrated_amount": nnn.n, (numeric) The total amount of unfinalized ZEC
"finalized_migrated_amount": nnn.n, (numeric) The total amount of finalized ZEC
"finalized_migration_transactions": nnn, (numeric) The number of migration transactions involving this wallet
"time_started": ttt, (numeric, optional) The block time of the first migration transaction as a Unix timestamp
"migration_txids": [txids] (json array of strings) An array of all migration txids involving this wallet
Once the total held in Sprout address is less than 0.01 ZEC, the tool will disable itself automatically.