Architecture and Cryptography

An overview of the cryptography inside Zcash. Don’t worry if you don’t understand what this means–this isn’t required knowledge to use Zcash or build Zcash apps. However, this is required knowledge for developers who plan to contribute to cryptographic improvements.

Current Design

  • pairing is a crate for using pairing-friendly elliptic curves. Currently, only the BLS12-381. construction is implemented.

  • bellman is a crate for building zk-SNARK circuits. It provides circuit traits and primitive structures, as well as basic gadget implementations such as booleans and number abstractions.

  • jubjub is a pure Rust implementation of the Jubjub elliptic curve group and its associated fields.

  • Implements some Sapling primitives necessary for testing

  • Implements Sapling/Sprout circuits on top of bellman, and the APIs for creating and verifying proofs.

  • Special implementation of Merkle mountain ranges (MMR) for Zcash!

  • This library contains Rust structs and traits for creating shielded Zcash light clients.

  • FFI library crate that exposes the Zcash Rust components to the C++ zcashd full node.

Current Issues

  • We’re doing lots of refactorings and improvements to the code, but these will span many different crates until we get to a stable point. Hard to review and coordinate.

    • Example: bellman is going to be a “circuit-only” thing, agnostic to the proving system. groth16 crate will handle groth16.

    • Example: hardware wallets only want/need jubjub and sapling primitives, so we need to pull out zk-SNARK stuff (which requires an allocator, standard library, etc.)

  • Code is inconsistent (with naming, as far as we know) with specification

  • Nothing is labeled as constant/variable time


  • pairing is being refactored into a generic library for working with pairing-friendly curves. After the refactor, pairing will provide basic traits for pairing-friendly elliptic curve constructions, while specific curves will be in separate crates.

  • bellman is being refactored into a generic proving library. Currently it is pairing-specific, and different types of proving systems need to be implemented as sub-modules. After the refactor, bellman will be generic using the ff and group crates, while specific proving systems will be separate crates that pull in the dependencies they require.

  • Warning: This is an alpha build, not yet intended for 3rd party use.

  • This library contains APIs that collectively implement a Zcash light client in an SQLite database. We are actively rebasing this and adding features where / when needed.


  • librustzcash repository is a Rust workspace containing all of our dependencies, for the time being, via git subtrees

  • We refactor code and integrate test vectors closely, following stringent code review processes and quality policies

  • Later, we break the subtrees out into crates with stable APIs

End Goal

  • Complete cleanup of code (match spec, best practices)

  • More members of the team learn how all this stuff works, good documentation

  • Refactor of code into modular pieces that all relate to each other nicely

  • no_std support for hardware wallets and other projects

  • In the meantime, everything is CI’d and developed together

  • The coolest, most awesome crypto codebase written in Rust anywhere in the world